This is one in a series of our posts about President Reagan, as the centennial of his birth is celebrated. Additional reading is listed below.
October 23, 1983, a suicide bomber killed 241 Marines in Beirut. Just a few days later, October 25, 1983, U.S. Forcec invaded Grenada.
October 27, 1983, President Reagan addressed the nation, about Grenada and Beirut:
“This past Sunday, at 22 minutes after 6 Beirut time, with dawn just breaking, a truck, looking like a lot of other vehicles in the city, approached the airport on a busy, main road. There was nothing in its appearance to suggest it was any different than the trucks or cars that were normally seen on and around the airport. But this one was different. At the wheel was a young man on a suicide mission.
“The truck carried some 2,000 pounds of explosives, but there was no way our marine guards could know this. Their first warning that something was wrong came when the truck crashed through a series of barriers, including a chain-link fence and barbed wire entanglements. The guards opened fire, but it was too late. The truck smashed through the doors of the headquarters building in which our marines were sleeping and instantly exploded. The four-story concrete building collapsed in a pile of rubble.
“More than 200 of the sleeping men were killed in that one hideous, insane attack. Many others suffered injury and are hospitalized here or in Europe. . . .
“Last weekend, I was awakened in the early morning hours and told that six members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, joined by Jamaica and Barbados, had sent an urgent request that we join them in a military operation to restore order and democracy to Grenada. They were proposing this action under the terms of a treaty, a mutual assistance pact that existed among them.
“These small, peaceful nations needed our help. Three of them don’t have armies at all, and the others have very limited forces. The legitimacy of their request, plus my own concern for our citizens, dictated my decision. I believe our government has a responsibility to go to the aid of its citizens, if their right to life and liberty is threatened. The nightmare of our hostages in Iran must never be repeated.
“We knew we had little time and that complete secrecy was vital to ensure both the safety of the young men who would undertake this mission and the Americans they were about to rescue. The Joint Chiefs worked around the clock to come up with a plan. They had little intelligence information about conditions on the island.
“We had to assume that several hundred Cubans working on the airport could be military reserves. Well, as it turned out, the number was much larger, and they were a military force. Six hundred of them have been taken prisoner, and we have discovered a complete base with weapons and communications equipment, which makes it clear a Cuban occupation of the island had been planned.
“Two hours ago we released the first photos from Grenada. They included pictures of a warehouse of military equipment — one of three we’ve uncovered so far. This warehouse contained weapons and ammunition stacked almost to the ceiling, enough to supply thousands of terrorists. Grenada, we were told, was a friendly island paradise for tourism. Well, it wasn’t. It was a Soviet-Cuban colony, being readied as a major military bastion to export terror and undermine democracy. We got there just in time.”
Read the full transcript of the address or watch the video of it below.
President Ronald Reagan
- “We Win, They Lose,” by Michael Reagan, Command Posts
- The New Reagan Revolution, by Michael Reagan, with Jim Denney
- President Ronald Reagan’s Remarks to Reporters on the Death of American and French Military Personnel in Beirut, Lebanon (October 23, 1983)
- Statement by Deputy Press Secretary Speakes on the Death of American and French Military Personnel in Beirut, Lebanon (October 23, 1983)
- “The Lessons of Beirut: Testimony Before the Long Commission,” by Brian Michael Jenkins, Rand (1984)
- “The Beirut Bombing of October 1983: An Act of Terrorism?,” by Frederic C. Hof, Parameters (1985)
- “U.S. Marines in Lebanon, 1982-1984,” U.S. Marine Corps
- “Beirut Barracks Bombing,” Dept. of Defense
Operation Urgent Fury
- The Long Gray Line, by Rick Atkinson (Chapter 18: Operation Urgent Fury)
- Without Hesitation, by GEN Hugh Shelton
- “An Analysis of Operation Urgent Fury,” by Maj. David Rivard, Air Command and Staff College (1985)
- “Grenada Remembered: A Perspective—A Narrative Essay on Operation Urgent Fury,” by LTC George A Crocker, US Army War College (1987)
- “Logistics in Grenada: Supporting No-Plan Wars,” by Gilbert S. Harper, Parameters (1990)
- “Presidential Decisionmaking and Use of Force: Case Study Grenada,” by Richard D. Hooker, Jr., Parameters (1991)
- “Urgent Fury: Rational Action or Bureaucratic Politics Run Amok?,” by LTC Dan Challis, National War College (1992)
- “Jointness for the Sake of Jointness in Operation Urgent Fury,” by COL S.J. Labadie, Naval War College (1993)
- “Operation Urgent Fury, Grenada,” by Robert H. Cole, Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1997)
- “Grenada: Operation Urgent Fury,” Naval History & Heritage Command
- “The Invasion of Grenada,” PBS